Violations of human rights in the occupied Palestinian territories by the Israeli occupation authoritieshave become an almost daily prominent feature. These violations affect all aspects of life of the Palestinian people and extends to all Palestinian cities, villages, camps, and communities. Thus, not a day goes by without witnessing various forms of serious violations that affect all individuals and groups in the form of collective punishment.
There are multiple violations that are almost similar in all areas conducted by the Israeli occupation authorities and settlers. These violations affect the daily life of people, such as deliberate and direct killing, violation of freedom of mobility, freedom of worship, arrests, home demolitions, violations against children, etc.
In East Jerusalem, which is an occupied territory in 1967, and according to the international law and the fourth Geneva convention, international conventions, and dozens of Unite Nation organizations resolutions such as the Security Council and the UN General Assembly and others, that it is an occupied territory.
Human rights violations in Jerusalem are taking a dangerous turn, closely related to the annexation carried out by the Israeli occupying authorities and their declaration of the city as the capital of the state of Israel, treating it as Israeli territory rather than occupied land. In addition, Israeli has created realities and space for the city and its suburbs,where five hundred thousand Palestinians live, and daily human rights violations intensify, closely related to this unique and tough reality, which we can see its manifestations through the systemized migration of Palestinians from Jerusalem.
The system of legislation and laws adopted by the Israeli occupation authorities since day oneregarding Jerusalem has provided a wide and unrestricted scope for human rights violations in the city, thus, this set of violations by the authorities is a systematic expression of this system of legislations and laws of the occupation regarding Jerusalem, which contradicts with the rules of the International Law and International Humanitarian Law and all international treaties and conventions related to human rights.
This paper will discuss some of the models of Palestinian human rights violations in Jerusalem and its suburbs. These are the clearest ongoing, almost daily, models that reflect the discrimination of the occupation authorities against Palestinians. It also reflects the policy, of imposing realities in the city which makes life for Palestinian citizens harsh. These policies, which started as early as the occupation of Jerusalem in 1967, are home demolitions, arrests, deportation from the city, restrictions on worship, especially that Jerusalem has Islamic and Christian holy sites that are very significant to the followers of these two religions in Palestine and the rest of the world, such as the Aqsa Mosque, the Dome of the Rock and the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. Jerusalem has a historical specificity in this regard. The isolation policy of the city, with the Apartheid wall and the network of crossings points and military checkpoints that surrounds the city to implement this isolation. These violations affect the children’s rights in particular in the form of battery and arrest, etc.
Home Demolition in Jerusalem
The main form of Palestinian human rights violations by Israel in Jerusalem, especially the collective violations, were home demolitions, which started only a few days after the occupation of the city in 1967. The Moghrabi neighborhood adjacent to the Aqsa Mosque wall was demolished and erased; 136 houses and 4 mosques and a school were demolished. At least 650 people became homeless as a result. This neighborhood was not a living place, but it was a historical cultural heritage that was at least 700 years of age. In addition to violations of human rights of the residents of that neighborhood, this is also a blatant violation of international laws and treaties related to the protection of historical and cultural sites for peoples, as stipulated in the 1954 Hague Convention and the 1945 UNESCO Charter, as well as the 2003 UNESCO World Heritage Protection Declaration against destruction. This is just an example of the systematic home demolition policy adopted by Israel in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, especially in Jerusalem which started at day one of the occupation.
In Jerusalem, it is part of the forced migration of Palestinians policy. The fact that demolishing the Moghrabi neighborhood, was accompanied by expelling 3700 Palestinians from the adjacent Al-Sharaf neighborhood, is evidence to this claim. This confirms that the forced migration policy is a fact to the Israeli decision makers since the start of the Israeli occupation in Jerusalem, and especially in the old city for its cultural, religious, and economic importance to the Palestinians, which can be noticed until this moment.
What happened at the Moghrabi neighborhood was one of the violations of international treaties, especially the Fourth Geneva Convention, which prohibits that occupying force to make changes and destruction of real of personal property, as stipulated in Article 53 of the fourth convention of 1949. (1)
As years of occupation pass up to this moment, the Israeli policy in Jerusalem targeted real estate, either by full or partial destruction using several pretexts, the most of which is building without necessary permit. It is worth noting that a Palestinian obtaining this permit in the occupied territories in general and especially in Jerusalem is not an easy task and near to impossible, where, at the same time, settlement construction in Jerusalem is facilitated which is a sign of the racist discrimination of this policy.
Since the occupation of Jerusalem in 1967, until 2021 around 2000 houses have been demolished, either partially or completely, and in 2022 1058 structures have been demolished in Jerusalem, 553 of which were homes and 705 other facilities. This has resulted in the disposition of hundreds of Palestinians, which is a violation of children and women rights, who suddenly became without habitat, and are forced to find an alternative and rent a house, which burdens them with more expenditures, that are mostly beyond the capacity of the families which forces them to borrow money. This, in turn, leads to more poverty with what comes with it of suffering that affects the entire family, and especially children. Thus, the most prominent manifestation of home demolitions is displacement and family dispersion.
“They have demolished my life dream, everything, they demolished dreams, memories, and ambitions, they basically destroyed our lives, they kept demolishing for the last brick, and the more the bulldozer was demolishing the walls, I felt it is demolishing my heart. They were laughing while committing an unusual crime. After the house was demolished, they shook hands and congratulated each other for a task accomplished, they are inhumane, I do not understand how people can laugh and happy as they seechildren being thrown to the street.” These were the words Hanadi Abu Rmouz used to describe her and her family’s suffering when the Israeli Municipality of the Occupation demolished their house in Beit Hanina (2).
The home demolition process in Jerusalem starts after the house owner receives a demolishing warrant, usually under the pretext of not obtaining a building permit. The house owners go to Israeli courts, hoping to stop the demolition, but it takes a long time for the court to take a decision, which in most cases is complicit with the decision of the municipality. Jerusalem is city “annexed” to Israel, and Palestinian residents of Jerusalem hold Israeli identification cards, therefore, the municipality follow up the construction, demolition, and permit affairs. During the legal case, the municipality usually adds extra fees on the house owners who received demolition warrants, as legal fees and plans etc., and after all, the decision is demolition.
Another policy adopted by the Municipality of Jerusalem and the Israeli courts in charge of the building and warrants issues, is imposing fines against the house owner as fees of demolition if the municipality will do the demolition. These fines can be tens of thousands of dollars, which forces house owners who receive demolition orders to demolish their own homes themselves to avoid paying the fees, which is known as “self-demolition”.
In spite of the painful psychological impact of demolishing your own house, many actually do it themselves, to avoid such fines or fees.
This policy has been intensified in the past few years. In 2022 alone, 93 houses were demolished by their owners, and as of February of 2023, another 46 houses were demolished by their owners. Hussam Abbasi from Silwan, who demolished his house said, “It was a tough day to demolish my home with my own hands, this was my little home in which I lived with my wife and children” (3).
Issam Sharaf, who was forced to demolish his own home in Wad Qaddoum neighborhood said, “I have tried all possible way to build my house, now I have a pile of wreckage only, my dreams to get married and live with my family in my home have gone with the winds, my heart is broken and I am in pain because I had to demolish my own home to avoid paying the fine to the municipality had it carried out the demolition.” (4)
The home demolition policy in Jerusalem, as well as in the rest of the occupied territories, is a clear violation of human rights to a proper habitat. This is a right stated in the international law; “the right to own property without fear of being evicted or deprived from habitat or land.” (5)
Israeli violations against children
In general, based on documentation by Human Rights organizations in Palestine, and media agencies, children, in general, are the most group subjected to human rights violations by the Israaeli authorities, such as arrest, and different other forms of physical and psychological violence. In Jerusalem, we can notice that children are subject to these multiple violations, especially during protests and demonstrations, or during raids on Palestinian houses or other occasions. They are also one of these groups whose rights are directly violatedin home demolitions.
It is important to point out that the violations against children start by the Israeli authorities, as they set the age of children to be those under the age of 16, which is a clear violation of article one of the Convention on the Rights of Children which defines children as those human beings below the age of 18 years. (6)
It is apparent that the Israeli definition of childhood age is to legalize the practices that violates the rights of children, whether by battery, violence, or most commonly used arrest.Defining the children age to be below 16 years was These arrests are often accompanied by physical assault, destruction of property, and transfer to military centers where detainees are subjected to beatings, psychological humiliation, sleep deprivation, and inadequate amount of food. Israeli forces conduct arrests during late night and early morning hours, prevent parents from attending their children's investigations and coerce children to sign statements in a language they do not understand. The situation is further exacerbated by inhuman detention conditions, medical negligence, isolation, abuse, and heavy fines imposed on children. Besides, Israeli authorities have set the transition of childhood to adulthood at sixteen years old, which violates international standards whereby such transition happens at eighteen.
We can also say that Israel is the only country in the world that tries children in military courts and in hard conditions during arrest and interrogation. Despite the fact that Jerusalem has been annexed and Israeli ID cards have been issued to Palestinian
Statistics of organizations catering to the Children Rights and arrests show that the year 2022 indicate that Jerusalem had the highest rate of child arrests in comparison with the rest of Palestinian governorate. The Palestinian Prisoners Club pointed out that during 2022, at least 883 Palestinian children have been arrested, including 654 from Jerusalem, which 74.1%.
Most of the children in Israeli jails, who are below the age of 14 are detained in special social centers, or subject to house-arrest, which turned these homes into some form of detention centers, which has impacts on the families and the children who are deprived of communicating with their social environment or school, etc. The Israeli occupation measures against children in Jerusalem, within this policy is a violation of international law, especially article (16) on children which states "No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honor and reputation."
A statement by the Palestinian Prisoners Affairs Committee said that in 2022, a total of 600 children from Jerusalem below the age of 14 were subject to house-arrest. Their detention was decided by the court until legal proceedings are concluded. (8)
House arrest usually ends after the period said by the court passes, and the family of the child is subject to pay a very high fine. As an example, 14-year-old Ali Qneibi from Shaiek Jarrah neighborhood in Jerusalem, is one of the victims of house-arrest. He spent 5 months in house-arrest before another ruling was issued against him and a fine of 30 thousand Shekels. Rateb Qneibi the father of Ali described the house arrest of his son and how he and the family suffered from that the family become like jailers for the child, and do not allow him to go out, because he is generally a child and the life of children is a game, and when he sees his friends children playing while he is deprived of that and he can not go to his school and can not even stand at the door, he becomes depressed.
One form of the violations of children Rights in Jerusalem is being committed by the police during their raids of Palestinian neighborhoods, especially the crowded ones, such as in Shu’fat refugee camp, Silwan, and other neighborhoods, where children are subject to battery and physical and verbal violence.
Children in Jerusalem, likeother children in the occupied territories, are subject to violence from settlers as well. Less thana month ago, 15-year-old Khader Ghorab,from the old city of Jerusalem, was shot in his by a settler.
Children are also victims of the Israeli policies in Jerusalem, such as home demolition, which leaves the family homeless to live in a tent for example, which in turn has tough psychological impact on children.
The impacts of the violations of children’s rights can be seen on the parents, as they feel afraid when their children go to or come back from school, especially in friction areas. Parent Sami Ismael from Shu’fat refugee camp said, “we are always worried when our children go to school, and we do not rest until they are back home. These worries are renewed when the children go to play or walk around the camp with their friends. We are always worried that they get beaten, arrested, or kidnapped.” (9)
Violations of Right of Worship and Practice of Religious rituals
Closing the entrances to religious sites by Israeli police and security forces, and preventing the worshippers to enter became a repeated phenomenon, not only during religious occasions, but also along the year.
Three years ago, Israel erected metal gates, at the entrance of Al-Aqsa Mosque, however, under pressure and Palestinian demonstrations and international pressure, against the Occupation state, Israel removed them. This, however, did not stop the policy of preventing worshipers to enter where massive numbers of police are stationed at the gates of the Mosque, to screen those who enter. (10)
In addition, closing schools and isolating them from the surroundings in Palestine, and preventing Palestinians to enter Jerusalem and religious sites except with a permit that is given by the occupation authorities, and of course, setting limitations on the age of those who will be allowed to enter, are violations of freedom of access to religious sites and worshipto both Christians and Muslims.
In April of this year, Israelcancelled the permits of 700 Palestinian Christians from the Gaza Strip who were preparing to celebrate ceremony of the Holy Fire on Saturday 15 April 2023 in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. Therefore, they have been deprived of their rights to practice their worship on this occasion. This cancellation was condemned by Rights organizations in Palestine. Al-Mezan Center for Human Rights in Gaza said in a statement that this decision is a violation of the rights of worship. The statement addedthat this is a continuation of the racial discrimination policy. At the same time, spokesperson of the Secretary General of the United Nations, Stéphane Dujarric expressed disappointment of this decision to prevent Christians from visiting religious sites and the Church of the Holy Sepulcher during Easter.
Issa Hanna from Bethlehem describes being prevented from entering Jerusalem to take part in the Holy Fire Service in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, “This is our country, we should be free to move in it. They want to send us a message that this is not our country, but this makes me more convinced that there can be no peace with them, and that the occupation must come to an end, they are being racist against us.” (11)
Within the same policy, Israel issued an order to prevent Muslims below the age of 50 years to enter Jerusalem to pray at the Aqsa Mosque during the month of Ramadan. This violation prevented thousands of worshippers from Jerusalem and the West Bank to reach the Aqsa Mosque to pray and practice their Ramadan rituals. Thousands of people piled at the crossing points, and all those below 50 years were prevented to enter during Ramadan, especially on Friday. In a meeting with 45-year-old Mohammad Ibrahim from Dura, near Hebron, he said, “I feel very sad, I came to the checkpoint in the early hours of the morning to pray in the Aqsa Mosque, but they denied me entry at checkpoint 300 north of Bethlehem, they deprive me to pray at the Aqsa Mosque, the sacred place for Muslims.” (12)
In the meantime, 48-year-old Khalil Odeh, from Bethlehem said, “When I came to the crossing terminal, I learned from people there that they have been prevented to enter, I know that I will not be allowed in because of my age, I stayed until 11 AM waiting at the crossing terminal, hoping that they may allow us to enter, however, the waiting went in vein, so hundreds of us prayed outside the crossing.” (13) The same on all the other military crossings into Jerusalem. Hundreds of young people from Jerusalemhad to pray in the streets and near the entrances of the Mosque area because they were prevented to enter the Mosque, the same happened at the Asbat gate on the eastern side of the Mosque.
This year policeassaults against the worshippers were not only during the month of Ramadan, but the police also invaded the Aqsa Mosque yards after damaging Al-Rahmeh gate, and assaulted the worshippers there, which left dozens bruised, and lots of closets damaged, and cause power outage as the grid incurred damage, and the separator between men and women was removed.
As of writing this report, Israeli police assaulted and beat Christians during the Holy Fire celebrations in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. Dozens of monks, clergy, and worshippers were violently beaten, and were dragged on the floor, kicked andbeaten with clubs and rifle buttons.
Simon Awad said, it is very painful to see an occupying soldier preventing us, the owners of this land, from entering Jerusalem. This impacts the number of Palestinians who enter Jerusalem to visit relatives of to do shopping or to worship. This year, the occupation measures to prevent people to enter Jerusalem and pray is actually depriving tens of thousands of people to practice their rights. (14)
Closure and Siege of Jerusalem: Individual and Collective Punishment
Historically, Jerusalem is regarded as the heart of Palestine, for its historic, religious, cultural, economic, and social importance. Since day one of the occupation, Jerusalem has been a target for the occupation authorities to isolate it from its Palestinian geographic and national relevance. Israel adopted a number of policies used to isolate Jerusalem from the rest of the West Bank. For example, it issued Israeli Identification Cards to the residents of Jerusalem, it also intensified settlement construction especially in the heart of the city, and later it annexed it and declared it its capital of the occupation state in a move that violates international laws and conventions since Jerusalem is regarded as an occupied city, and the occupying force is not allowed to change this status.
The closures policy has taken a serious curve in the past twenty years, when Israeli started with the construction of the isolation wall which surrounds the governorate, and started to build terminals and military checkpoints at the entrances, and prevented West Bank and Gaza Strip residents to enter Jerusalem except with a permit from the occupation authorities.
This reality and facts that were established on the grounds to isolate Jerusalem have resulted violations of the rights of Palestinians in Jerusalem and the rest of the occupied territories. These violations have affected the Palestinians on economic, social, and cultural levels and the freedom of movement of individual and collective levels as well.
On the economic level, many of the merchants and shop owners who work in West Bank areas, were forced to shut down their businesses and go back to Jerusalem fearing of losing the Jerusalem resident rights. This has also negatively affected the merchants in Jerusalem, as the city has not been a commercial hub in the West Bank anymore because West Bankers have been prohibited from entering Jerusalem for shopping or trading. Ahmad Obeidat, a shop owner in Silwan, Jerusalem said, “I have lost more than 60% of my customers from the West Bank, especially from the nearby Al-Ezariyah and Abu Dis towns, this has negatively affected my income.” (15)
The closure of Jerusalem has left tough economic impacts on Palestinians in Jerusalem which has two indicators; the jump in prices especially fruits and vegetables that comes from the West Bank, and second, the movement of many merchants from Jerusalem to locations on the other side of the wall, like Abu Dis, Qalandia, al-Ram and Al-Ezeriya. Khalil Abu Tair, from Jerusalem said, “The prices of fruits and vegetables in Jerusalem are sold double its price in the West Bank because of the wall, and because it is not allowed freely as it used to be.” (16)
Violation of freedom of movement of Palestinians has been manifested in closing and sieging Jerusalem in violation of the Fourth Geneva Convention, which prohibits the occupying force to make changes to the occupied territories that affect the rights of the residents under occupation.
Jerusalem around 20 years ago, it was very easy for us to go to Ezeriya, and then to Jericho, for example. In fact, going to Ezeriya would not need a car, because it is so close, it was like a neighborhood of Jerusalem where we have family and friends, however, with the closure and the wall, we have to go through the village of Al-Z’ayyem and then to Ezeriya, which is around 15 Kilometers. Before the closure, I used to go twice a week there, but now, I only go if needed, and this is the case with most people in my neighborhood.” (17)
Ali Abu Tair, from Um Tuba, south of Jerusalem, said “We used to move to any location in the West Bank easily, nowadays, we have to go through military checkpoints, and go through inspection, especially on the way back to Jerusalem. This usually takes time, especially when the checkpoint of the crossing terminal is crowded. Aside from this, is the racial discrimination that we face, because Israelis are allowed in very easily, while we, as Palestinians, we are subject to thorough inspection and obstruction, despite the fact that we both are holders of and Israeli ID. As a result of these measures, mobility between Jerusalem and the rest of the West Bank is as not as strong as it used to be before the closure.” (18) These quotations are evidence of the suffering of the people of Jerusalem due to the restrictions of their mobility.
On the social level, the closure and siege of Jerusalem resulted in the fragmentation of the social fabric of many families and clans who live inside and outside Jerusalem due to the construction of the Apartheid wall, as clearly seen in towns that are at a close proximity and adjacent to the wall like Al-Ezeriya, Abu Dis, Sawahreh Sharqiyeh, Beit Haneena, and Anata, where hundreds of families became separate from each other on both sides of the wall.
Many families and clans have been dispersed because of the wall. An example to this, is that since the occupation of Jerusalem and setting the municipal borders, many families were counted inside the municipal border of Jerusalem and were issued Israeli (Blue) ID, and other were issued West Bank (Green) IDs, however these families were in constant contact until the construction of the wall and the erection of military checkpoints on the municipality borders which disconnected the families from each other. The biggest and most dramatic examples are families of Sawahreh Sharqiyeh and Gharbiyeh where the families that live in Jerusalem areas, such as Jabal Al-Mukabber and Al-Suwwana and some family members live in Sawahreh Sharqiyeh such as Obeidat, Za’atra, Shqeirat, Halaseh, etc. Khaled Shqeirat said that the closure and the separation wall had an extremely negative impact on family relations, communications, marriages, and social activities which have shrunk dramatically and marriage across the divide became almost zero. (19)
Education in Jerusalem
In Jerusalem, unlike the rest of the Occupied Palestinian Territories governorate, and due to the reality imposed by the occupation authorities through annexation and treating Jerusalem as part of the state of Israel’s lands, and since the educational system is historically under the Jordanian administration, as is the case in the rest of the governorates, Israel established schools under its administration after the occupation of 1967, and made amendments to the curriculum, and introduced it to these schools, yeta number of the schools in Jerusalem remained under the Palestinian Authority administration after Oslo agreement and the establishment of the Palestinian Authority in 1993.
This introduction of the division of schools, and the nature of the curricula adopted in Jerusalem schools, which created a strange reality that is inconsistent and inharmonic within the same city and for the same people; the Palestinian, due to their collective national and social identity. It created an impact on the city that feeds into the Israeli policies in Jerusalem, that is administrated by the Israeli occupation municipality, despite being an occupied city, according to International Law and a set of resolutions by the United Nations, however, Israel does not adhere to these resolutionsand still regard Jerusalem as a city part of Israel and is subject to its laws and legislations. This reality of two schooling systems in one city has also impacted the educational life in the city, and created obvious discrepancy, contradiction, and duplication in the education system, which has negative impacts that violated the education rights of the students, in addition to being a grave violation of the legal status of Jerusalem as a city under occupation, in accordance with the international legitimacy and International Law.
The Israeli campaign against the schools and the educational system and the curriculum in Jerusalem started years ago. Israeli omitted anything that highlights the Palestinian Identity. This violation became a center of conflict in the educational field. Palestinians rejected the changes on the Palestinian curriculum, which leads to its Israelization, which fits perfectly into the Israeli policy of annexation and the declaration of Jerusalem as its capital. In addition, it is a violation of the Palestinian educational space. In this regard, Nasser Al-Hidmi, head of the Anti-Judaizationcommittee said in his remarks about a decision issued by the Israeli Ministry of Education to shut down five schools including the Abrahimi School and Al-Iman School, under the pretext of incitement against the Israeli occupation army(20)
There are 98,428 students in Jerusalem schools, 45,500 of them are in schools that are under the Palestinian Authority administration and the rest are under the administration of the Israeli Ministry of Education. This means that half of the students in Jerusalem are not allowed to learn the Palestinian curriculum which represents the national context and reflects the Palestinian national identity. So, they are forced to learn the Israeli curriculum. (21)
Similarly, Laila Abu El-Hawa said, “Preventing Palestinian students in Israeli Ministry of the Education schools to learn about the national identity and the history of Palestine and its struggle and the sequence of events and the conflict with the occupation, is a problem that teacher face, which students ask about these topics. The teachers are worried to answer fearing to be fired under the pretext of not respecting the curriculum, or incitement.” (22) This is actually a violation of the rights of the students to learn the history of their ancestors and their people and the national events they went through.
The Israelization of the curriculum in Jerusalem does not only violate the cultural aspect and the Palestinian national identity, and does not only lead to the distraction of the collective consciousness of the student by the division of the curricula, but it exceeds it way beyond; it affects the psychology of the students, which they are forced to learn the curriculum of the state that forcefully occupies their land, which is an attempt to occupy the consciousness of this generation.
Muna Qerrish, a Jerusalemite student in the eleventh grade said, “sometimes I feel that I do not want to go to school, because we are forced to learn the curriculum of our oppressor and occupier, I feel that I am learning against my will, this is why we always participate in protests that are organized against imposing the Israeli curriculum on us. (23)
Palestinian researcher Anwaar Qidih insists that there is a huge gap between the Palestinian vision and mission and what the Israeli Ministry of Education is trying to promote. The Israeli curriculum that is imposed on students prevents them from expressing their national identity, such as preventing the mention of the word occupation or talking about the Nakba, for which the occupation claims that Israel is not responsible for it, but the Arab countries, and the prohibition of raising the Palestinian flag on schools...etc.
It is apparent from the interviews, studies, and articles, and from systematic continuous violations committed by Israel, and its impact on lives of Palestinians in Jerusalem, which also is part of the Israeli legal and legislative policy with regards to Jerusalem and the Palestinians who live in Jerusalem, that it serves to translate the Israeli policies to pressure the Palestinians, but imposing realities that leads to the immigration of Palestinians from Jerusalem, which feeds into the declared Israeli policy to create settler majority in the city. It also serves the Israeli policy to maintain the reality of annexing Jerusalem and to make it capital of the state of Israel. It is clear that violations of human rights in Jerusalem on all levels, whether individual or collective, are designed to serve this purpose.On the other hand, the volume and seriousness of the Israeli violations of international laws and conventions and treaties and the international human rights legislations became very obvious.
1- Report of the Moghrabi neighborhood, a story of the demolition of an entire Jerusalemiteneighborhood.Date of visit 22 March 2023.
2- Study: The Impact of home demolition on women in Jerusalem. Date of visit 23 March 2023
3- Interview, self-home demolition, between rejecting and imposing. Date of visit 23 March 2023
4- Article: Forced Self-home destruction in Jerusalem, nullifies a marriage dream. Date of visit 23 March 2023.
5- The United Nations: Human Rights, Office of the High Commissioner “The right of people to proper habitat”. Date of visit 25 March 2023.
6- Report: UNICEF for every action. Date of visit 23 March 2023
7- Remarks about the importance of protecting child prisoners in Israeli jails, based on the International. Date of visit 25 March 2023.
8- Report: More than 600 children were subject to house arrest during 2022. Date of visit 25 March 2023
9- Sami Ismael, personal interview in Jerusalem. Date of visit 11 April 2023.
10- Report: By video, the electronic gates, cameras, metal bridges on the entrance of the mosque were removed, and Jerusalem celebrates its victory.” Date of visit 26 March 2023
11- Hanna Issa, personal interview in Bethlehem. 24 – 4- 2023.
12- Mohammad Ibrahim, personal interview in Hebron, 23-4-2023.
13- Khalil Odeh, personal interview in Jerusalem, 25 April 2023.
14- Simon Awad, personal interview in Jerusalem, 25 April 2023.
15- Ahmad Obeidat, personal interview in Jerusalem, 18 March 2023.
16- Khalil Abu Tair, personal interview in Jerusalem, 17 March 2023.
17- Said Qunbar, personal interview in Jerusalem, 26 March 2023.
18- Ali Hamed, personal interview in Jerusalem, 28 March 2023.
19 Khaled Shqeirat, personal interview in Jerusalem, 12 April 2023.
20- War on educational institutions in Jerusalem. Date of visit 27 February 2023.
21- Report: on education in Jerusalem. Date of visit 27 February 2023.
22- Laila Abu-Elhawa, personal interview, 22 February 2023.
23- Muna Qerrish, personal interview in Jerusalem, 22 March 2023.
24- Article: The multiple educational reference in Jerusalem disorients the collective memory. Date of visit 24 March 2023.